In distinguishing between medullary and cortical hormones, Selye also developed innovative surgical techniques to remove the adrenal medulla without damaging the cortex, for example, or to remove the pituitary gland that were adopted by other researchers; see Selye. British Journal of Experimental Pathology. Hans Selye to F. Hans Selye to Dr. Effect of Cortin after Partial and after Complete Hepatectomy. I am grateful to Dr. Milagros Salas-Prato for a copy of the dossier. Two volumes on the ovary were published three years later.
For a similar discussion of the chemistry and physiology of steroid hormones, see Selye Hans. Selye Hans, Stone Helen. On the Experimental Morphology of the Adrenal Cortex. A Year in the Political Life of a Drug. Cortisone and the Politics of Empire: Imperialism and British Medicine, — Better Prepared Than Synthesized: Glaxo and the Development of Corticosteroids in Britain in the s—s. Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine, — The Development of Cortisone as a Therapeutic Agent; pp. Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones. The Adrenal Cortex and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
A Personal Reminiscence of Hans Selye. The Unique Stress Library of Dr. Canadian Medical Association Journal. For a contemporary study of steroids and performance in animals, see Ingle Dwight J. Sargant William, Slater Eliot. Treatment of War Neurosis. Incidence of Neurosis in England under War Conditions. For other contemporary studies of combat stress, see Stafford-Clark David. Aspects of War Medicine in the R. Anxiety States in the Navy: A Clinical Survey and Impression. The Human Response to Flying Stress.
Morale and Flying Experience: Results of a Wartime Study. Journal of Mental Science. Perforated Peptic Ulcer during Air-Raid. Courage and Air Warfare: Courage and Air Warfare. Pincus Gregory, Hoagland Hudson. Steroid Excretion and the Stress of Flying. Journal of Aviation Medicine. Although Pincus and Hoagland did not cite Selye in this paper, they subsequently became aware of his work after Selye contributed a chapter to a volume on hormones edited by Pincus; see Selye Hans. Hypertension as a Disease of Adaptation. Recent Progress in Hormone Research.
Adventures in Biological Engineering. Measuring the Fatigue Factor. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Stress of My Life. Stress and the General Adaptation Syndrome. The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress: Annual Report on Stress. Second Annual Report on Stress. Physiologists employed stress in a similar way to denote environmental factors that caused demonstrable changes in endocrine function; see Williams Robert H, Jaffe Herbert, Kemp Carol.
Effect of Severe Stress upon Thyroid Function. The Stress of Life. The General Adaptation Syndrome. Adaptation in Physiological Processes. Rheumatic Diseases as Diseases of Adaptation: Hans Selye and a Unitary Conception of Disease. The History of a Modern Malady. Disease, Pain, and Sacrifice: Toward a Psychology of Suffering. University of Chicago Press; The Life of Stress. Traherne T, Preston Frank, editors. Healthy Minds and Bodies.
Waverley Book Company; The Errors of Medicine. A Disease of Adaptation? Cancer, Stress and Death. Health as Situational Adaptation: A Social Psychological Perspective. Social Science and Medicine. Not All in the Mind. A Giant of Biology. Monographs, or book chapters, which are outputs of Wellcome Trust funding have been made freely available as part of the Wellcome Trust's open access policy.
Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Show details Cantor D, Ramsden E, editors. University of Rochester Press ; Feb. Stress and Disease Just as Selye liked to explain the origins of the general adaptation syndrome in terms of a smooth transition from laboratory experiment to theory, he also tended to highlight the relatively unproblematic conceptual journey from adaptation to stress.
Stephenson, Cameron Anxiety States.
Long hours Heavy workload Changes within the organisation Tight deadlines Changes to duties Job insecurity Lack of autonomy Boring work Insufficient skills for the job Over-supervision Inadequate working environment Lack of proper resources Lack of equipment Few promotional opportunities Harassment Discrimination Poor relationships with colleagues or bosses Crisis incidents, such as an armed hold-up or workplace death. Self-help for the individual A person suffering from work-related stress can help themselves in a number of ways, including: Think about the changes you need to make at work in order to reduce your stress levels and then take action.
Some changes you can manage yourself, while others will need the cooperation of others. Talk over your concerns with your employer or human resources manager. Make sure you are well organised. List your tasks in order of priority. Schedule the most difficult tasks of each day for times when you are fresh, such as first thing in the morning.
Take care of yourself. Eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly. Consider the benefits of regular relaxation. You could try meditation or yoga.
Make sure you have enough free time to yourself every week. Instead, tell them about your work problems and ask for their support and suggestions. Avoid excessive drinking and smoking. Seek professional counselling from a psychologist. If work-related stress continues to be a problem, despite your efforts, you may need to consider another job or a career change.
Seek advice from a career counsellor or psychologist. Benefits of preventing stress in the workplace Reduced symptoms of poor mental and physical health Fewer injuries, less illness and lost time Reduced sick leave usage, absences and staff turnover Increased productivity Greater job satisfaction Increased work engagement Reduced costs to the employer Improved employee health and community wellbeing.
Work-related stress is a management issue It is important for employers to recognise work-related stress as a significant health and safety issue. A company can and should take steps to ensure that employees are not subjected to unnecessary stress, including: Ensure a safe working environment. Make sure that everyone is properly trained for their job. De-stigmatise work-related stress by openly recognising it as a genuine problem.
Discuss issues and grievances with employees, and take appropriate action when possible. Devise a stress management policy in consultation with the employees. Encourage an environment where employees have more say over their duties, promotional prospects and safety. Organise to have a human resources manager.
Cut down on the need for overtime by reorganising duties or employing extra staff. Take into account the personal lives of employees and recognise that the demands of home will sometimes clash with the demands of work. Seek advice from health professionals, if necessary. What causes it, how to manage it and how to reduce it in the workforce.
National Safety Council of Australia. Victorian Workcover Authority, , Stresswise — Preventing work-related stress: A guide for employers in the public sector 2nd ed. State Government of Victoria, Australia. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details. Excellent Good Average Fair Poor.
Next Submit Now Cancel. Please note that we cannot answer personal medical queries. If you are looking for health or medical advice we recommend that you: Enter your comments below optional. Did you find what you were looking for? Your feedback has been successfully sent. Work health basics Health risks and the workplace Healthy eating and work Active living and work Healthy mind Change and career planning Relationships and conflict Flexible workplaces Environmental health and safety Injuries and rehabilitation Work health basics Work and your health Work can provide satisfaction, but loss of a job or work-related problems can affect our physical, emotional and mental health Workplace conflict A clash of personalities at work is bad for business, because it can affect productivity and increase absenteeism Look after your health at harvest time Farmer health, wellbeing and safety are often neglected when facing the pressures of harvest.
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The dangers of sitting: Workplace safety - coping with a critical incident Stress responses can develop over time after trauma, and support may be required by some workers or groups Workplace safety - overuse injuries Occupational overuse syndrome, also known as RSI, is caused by repetitive movements or awkward postures Health risks and the workplace Workplace safety - manual handling injuries A person can be injured when handling objects in a variety of ways including pulling, pushing, holding or restraining Workplace safety - noise pollution There are many ways to reduce exposure to excessive noise in the workplace Workplace safety - hazardous substances A hazardous substance can be inhaled, splashed onto the skin or eyes, or swallowed Asthma and your workplace Some industries are more likely to affect a person with asthma because of the triggers in the environment Handwashing - why it's important Washing your hands with soap and warm water can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases Shiftwork A person working the night shift is at greater risk of various disorders and accidents Healthy eating and work Cooking tips for busy people If you lack the time or motivation to cook, try these tips Lunch boxes - healthy ideas Healthy foods that are great for school lunch boxes Lunch - avoid the fast food fix Nutritionist Shane Bilsborough shows us how much energy it takes to burn off a fast food lunch.
Lunch boxes - healthy shopping ideas Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham takes us shopping for the right foods to include in your childs lunchbox Conversely, it was theorized that parental support would predict a lower degree of stress and test anxiety, as the threat of negative evaluation is reduced Putwain et al.
Also, a higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate students, and among entry-level students dental students in seven European dental schools Polychronopoulou and Divaris, , and recently, Tangade et al. Hancock and Hembree reported that negative cognitions related to examinations, when such students underestimate their own abilities, or overestimation of the consequences related to their failure, are often accompanied by higher anxiety levels and poor performance.
It was demonstrated that in a number of studies, among dental and medical students, stress was high enough to present with psychiatric disorders in substantial proportions of students. The experience of severe stress and anxiety among dental school students is well documented. Students often report stress-related symptoms that may range from mild anxiety to sleep and eating disorders, as well as resulting in reduced performance, inability to concentrate, hostility, depression, and other debilitating effects Stewart et al. In a cross-sectional survey examining the level of perceived academic stress among medical, dental, psychology, and sports students, it was demonstrated that sports and psychology students had a lower perceived stress risk compared with medicine students Neveu et al.
The relationship between personality traits and stress and anxiety related to taking examinations was also examined in a number of studies. For example, Liu et al. Authors found that all the dimensions of self-concept were significantly related to test anxiety, among which are the general self-concept and the academic self-concept. Others claimed that perceived academic competence was related to worry and tension Putwain et al. If we are to develop programs to assist students in their scholastic activities and to minimize their anxiety and decrease their distress, one should develop a reliable tool to measure the sources of their stress and its associated causes.
The objective of this study is to develop and psychometrically assess an instrument with demonstrated evidence of validity, to measure academic stress among university students, the Perception of Academic Stress Scale PAS. All the participating students were from the third-year, Educational Psychology class at Tanta University Egypt. Students were included if they were planning to sit their third-year final course examinations in Educational Psychology.
All students who participated in this study did not have a history of diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and all provided their consent to be included in the study. The examination process involved taking a 3-hour written essay paper and an oral examination on the same day, which followed the written examination almost immediately. Students did not receive any credits for any assignments, or any homework, which they did during the whole year. Students, therefore, have to memorize a large amount of knowledge, for the two main semesters that they attended throughout the year.
Participated in the formal validation process were 12 experts from the Faculties of Psychology and Educational Psychology at Tanta University. Letters of invitations were delivered face to face inviting experts to participate in the validation process. There was also one-on-one discussion and feedback about each item of the scale with regard to its relevancy to sample sources of academic stress among undergraduate students. Among experts, there were seven at the rank of professor, two at the associate professor, and three PhD lecturers. Initially, experts provided opinion about the overall content of the instrument.
Each expert reviewed and provided comments on the relevance of the scale to be developed before testing the instruments with students. The design involved the development and the psychometric assessment of a scale to measure the perceived sources of academic stress among undergraduate university students. Following extensive literature review, a table of specification with the initial items was created to guide item construction for developing the scale.
We were able to identify a list of specification with three main components to characterize sources of academic stress among university students: The items related to these academic stresses were converted into an item, 5-point Likert-type questionnaire, resulting in the PAS. Table 2 displays the PAS three main subscales: For the purpose of developing the PAS, it was agreed to include only items receiving a mean score of 3. All items were reviewed for clarity and grammatical corrections.
After the scale had been written, the Microsoft Word computer program was used to assess the grammar, in order to ensure that students could easily understand and interpret each item. The scale was pilot tested with four students. Appendix 1 displays the final version of the administered scale.
Five items scoring were reversed to avoid response patterns Appendix 1. Completed responses and consent were returned via e-mail or regular mail to the investigator at the Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, Tanta University. All students provided their consent to participate in this project.
At the same time, students were also asked to provide demographics including age, sex, academic year, their faculty, and university affiliation, and if they had a history of academic failure. All students were also asked to rate their satisfaction with their learning environment and their overall physical and psychiatric health. Students needed on average 5 minutes to complete the PAS. Table 1 describes the demographics.
Analyses of variance ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant differences in the mean PAS score, between sexes, and age groups in the severity scores of anxiety symptoms. Overall, students reported confidence in their academic performance and in their ability to succeed. Several exploratory principal component analyses were conducted on the item scale. Table 3 contains the factor loadings, the internal consistency reliability analysis, and the proportion of the observed variance for each factor.
This component consists of five items, has an internal consistency of 0. This component consists of four items, has an internal consistency of 0. The factor refers to stresses relating excessive workload, lengthy assignments, and worried about failing examinations. This component consists of five items having an internal consistency of 0. It refers to academic self-confidence and confidence for success as a student, in future career and confidence in making the right academic decisions. This component consists of six items having an internal consistency of 0.
It refers to stresses as a result of limited time allocated to classes, inability to finish homework, the difficulty to catch up if behind, and the limited time to wind up or relax.